Paper-based items, such as books, manuscripts, maps, deeds, newspapers, drawings etc becomes deteriorated due to ageing. The following conservation methods are followed to restore the originals and preserve it for the future generation.
Encompasses non-sampling examination methods for support and media, surface and underlying layers, by direct or magnified observation using a variety of illumination sources and techniques.
Superficial grime, dirt, and soot are removed with a soft brush, non chemical vulcanized rubber sponges, or non abrasive erasing materials such as vinyl erasers, both in blocks and ground up into granules. Cotton dampened with organic solvent is also sometimes used to remove surface dirt.
Alkalization is achieved by immersion in an aqueous solution of an alkaline substance such as magnesium bicarbonate or calcium hydroxide.
The weak or brittle papers or sheets with numerous tears may be reinforced by backing them with another sheet of paper.Japanese paper, either handmade or machine-made of high-quality cellulose fibers are used for the purpose. The brittled paper sheets are sandwiched between two sheets of Japanese Tissue paper. The backing is adhered with a dilute starch-based paste, methyl cellulose, or a mixture of the two.
After completing various repairs, individual sheets of the document is compiled and stitched into a docket for the protection of loose sheets.
The method of section sewing is used for Binding.